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Holm , Mary A. Report of Investigations prepared for the National Geographic Society. Hudson , Charles The Southeastern Indians. University of Tennessee Press , Knoxville. Jackson , H. Edwin , and Susan , L. Scott Vertebrate Remains from Big Village. University of Nebraska Press , Omaha. Smith , pp.
Southeastern Archaeology 14 : — Johnson , Jay K. Scott , James , R. North American Archaeologist 15 : — Kelly , Lucretia S. Knight , Vernon J. Knight and Vincas , Steponaitis , pp.
Introducing Archaeology: Pre-Contact American History
Knight and Vincas , P. Steponaitis , pp. Southeastern Archaeology 15 : — Lyman , R. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3 : — Purdue , William , E. Klippel , and Bonnie , W. Styles , pp. Illinois State Museum , Springfield. Madrigal , T. American Antiquity 67 : — Markin , Julie G. Mississippi Archaeology 32 : — Maxham , Mintcy D. American Antiquity 65 : — Metcalf , Duncan , and Kevin T.
American Antiquity 53 : — Michals , Lauren Faunal Remains. Mistovich , — Report of Investigations Muller , Jon Mississippian Political Economy. Pauketat , Timothy R. Kelly , Gayle , J. Fritz , Neal , H. Peebles , Christopher S. Brown , pp. In Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Smith , pp — American Ethnological Society , Washington, D. American Antiquity 42 : — Southeastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin 24 : 96 — Potter , James M.
Purdue , James R. Journal of Wildlife Management 47 : — Rees , Mark A. Southeastern Archaeology 16 : — Ryba , Elizabeth A. Scarry , C. Margaret Archaeobotanical Analysis. Second interim Report to the National Science Foundation. Asward No. Margaret , and John , F.
Schambach , Frank F. Stoltman , pp. Archaeological Report No. Schoeninger , Margaret J. Schorger , A. The manner in which the new opportunities presented by CRM were to be exploited was heavily influenced, not only in the local area e. The importance of this project to CRM regional designs and to the kinds of questions addressed by subsequent CRM work e. Further, the data base it created for the Western Lowlands remains unmatched to the present.
Similar studies continue to dominate new fieldwork in the region e. Although CRM studies tended to dominate work in northeastern Arkansas during the s, several important studies were not contract related. Albert Goodyear's study of the Dalton-age Brand site in Poinsett County Figure was the first detailed study of any preceramic component in the central Mississippi Valley, though earlier surveys e. In addition to bringing together the results of disparate investigations of an important site, Parkin Figure , she carried out a survey of the surrounding region, which contained sites that she placed in the phase.
Similarly, Dan Morse b, pulled together bits and pieces of information on the earlier work at the Upper Nodena and Middle Nodena sites in Mississippi County. Archaeologists were not inactive in southeastern Missouri during this period.
Two projects in particular made important contributionsthe Powers Phase Project and the Lilbourn salvage project. The former was a long-term examination by University of Michigan personnel of Mississippian-period settlement along the Little Black River in western Butler County. The genesis of the project lay in the discovery by James Price in the early s of several burned structures on a series of sand ridges at the foot of the Ozark Highlands.
Price subsequently excavated a small portion of one site, Turner Figure , in Price and found that the village had burned, which appeared to have effectively sealed the house floors and everything that was on them at the time.http://dc-2825176aabd3.userengage.io/twilight-in-djakarta.php
Mississippian Period | Mississippi Encyclopedia
The remarkable state of preservation of Turner and its potential for addressing numerous questions about Mississippian life in the central Mississippi Valley were obvious, and between and it and another village, Snodgrass Figure , were excavated almost in their entirety Price ; Price and Griffin Also, more than square kilometers of the Little Black River drainage was surveyed, and eighty Mississippian-period sites were located Price , While the above-mentioned work was going on in the Western Lowlands, University of Missouri personnel were working at Beckwith's Fort, the largest fortified settlement in southeastern Missouri, and at Lilbourn, the secondlargest fortified settlement.
In , Lilbourn received extensive excavation prior to destruction of part of the site in advance of expansion of a vocational-technical school Chapman et al. Excavations revealed a complicated archaeological signature, comparable to that at Beckwith's Fort Chapman et al. Few of the tens of thousands of artifacts have been analyzed, though available data suggest that the center was contemporaneous with other large fortified communities in the Cairo Lowland.
Radiocarbon dates span the period from about A. Summary In many respects, the archaeology of the central Mississippi River valley has been the victim of its own successes. The pathbreaking study of Phillips, Ford, and Griffin laid the foundation for what became, in the hands of Phillips and Willey ; Willey and Phillips , , the way of doing culture history. The concept central to culture history, the archaeological phase, was applied there first and most uniformly.
Yet in the process, many of the innovative features in the system of Phillips, Ford, and Griffin, traceable mostly to Ford, were lost to a rigid essentialist interpretation of the original program Lyman et al. That so much of the archaeology of such a large region came to be investigated within this paradigm made it almost impossible to differentiate the artificial constructs from the empirical reality they were intended to describe. Progress became adding new bits to the same old structure instead of reexamining the structure itself.
Cultural-resource management demanded a broadening of the archaeological purview for example, small sites had to be addressed and sampling designs had to be formulatedbut even this redirection, important as it was, did not carry with it much of a critical examination of some of the underlying presumptions that carried over from the halcyon days of culture history.
The methods that Phillips, Ford, and Griffin had used to measure timethe innovative feature of their workhad come undone at the hands of Phillips and his successors so that culture history of the s and s was a hodgepodge of ill-advised assumptions and approaches.
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For reasons we mentioned earlier, the central Mississippi Valley escaped the onslaught of new archaeology, though there were more than a few instances of an interest or two being piqued by cultural reconstructionism. But for the most part, archaeologists working in the valley were unmolested by such interests, preferring to remain in the culture-history tradition of their predecessors.
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In several respects, most of the chapters in this volume represent a break with that tradition. For example, in Chapter 2, Fox demonstrates that the phases used in the northern part of the region are based on unsystematic comparisons of ceramic assemblages. One result of his analysis see also Fox ; O'Brien and Fox a, b is clear demonstration that phenomena once treated as being the same are more similar to phenomena treated as being different.