Email: avi. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The focus of criminology on crimes and harms committed by and against humans has broadened over time.
Global Environmental Harm: Criminological Perspectives
Only since the s, however, has the discipline recognized the significance of crimes and harms concerning the environment and nonhuman animals. It concludes with an example illustrating the ways in which these approaches may overlap. More specifically, green criminology explores and analyzes: the causes , consequences and prevalence of environmental crime and harm, the responses to and prevention of environmental crime and harm by the legal system civil, criminal, regulatory and by nongovernmental entities and social movements, as well as the meaning and mediated representations of environmental crime and harm.
In this article, we provide an overview of green criminological research and an examination of these issues, as well as a summary of types of environmental crime and harm that might be found at local, regional, national, transnational and international levels. Green criminological study of the causes of environmental crime and harm includes violations of existing environmental law civil, criminal and regulatory violations designed to protect the health, safety, and vitality of humans, natural resources and ecosystems.
Other green criminologists, drawing on a more critical or radical criminological tradition, broaden their ambit by investigating and exposing environmental harms that may not be statutorily proscribed.
Green criminology: shining a critical lens on environmental harm
Both approaches involve a consideration of who is committing the crime or harm and why that person, group or entity is committing the harm or crime. With respect to the latter, green criminologists have endeavored to understand the motives and causes underlying environmental crime and harm. Is it because of ignorance of the law or obliviousness to the impact see, e. Profit or greed see, e.
Or for religious reasons, such as the notion that plants and nonanimals were created by God for human consumption see, e. Green criminological study of the causes of environmental crime and harm is intimately intertwined with the consequences and prevalence of environmental crime and harm, wherein the underlying question is: Who or what is being impacted, degraded or otherwise adversely affected—and to what extent? These are, essentially, questions of victimization see, e. Responding to environmental crime and harm also entails learning from—or endeavoring to understand—previous mistakes and omissions, as well as anticipating future risks and threats.
This, in turn, requires preventing or attempting to thwart environmental crime and harm before it occurs. How we respond to environmental crimes and harms is, of course, closely related to the ways in which we learn about various environmental disasters or instances of habitual, ongoing environmental degradation and despoliation. Here, the concern is less with the causes or extent of harms and more with what does this mean and how do we feel? The above sections have noted the types of inquiries that green criminologists undertake with respect to environmental harm, broadly defined. Green criminologists attempt to unpack the local, regional, national, international and transnational dimensions of the phenomena listed above, while recognizing that not all environmentally degrading acts or omissions are illegal in all jurisdictions Walters, The different topics of study, listed in the previous section, are often approached from one of the following perspectives on the relationship between humans, the natural environment and nonhuman animals: 1 anthropocentrism ; 2 biocentrism ; and 3 ecocentrism.
Thus, where limits to human activities are recognized as necessary, human creativity, ingenuity and technological innovation are perceived as the most appropriate way to guarantee the exploitation of nature e. Indeed, particular kinds of harm e. Taken to this extreme, then, biocentrism can be argued to be somewhat misanthropic. Rather, it is based on the idea that humans and their activities are inextricably interconnected with the rest of the natural world. These three ecophilosophical orientations not only influence the research agendas of green criminologists and the ways in which they choose and approach their subjects of study, but also the nature and scope of policies and regulatory practices proposed.
Green criminology: shining a critical lens on environmental harm | Palgrave Communications
As conceived by green criminologists, environmental justice refers to the distribution of environments among peoples in terms of access to , and use of, specific natural resources in defined geographical areas, and the impacts of particular political decisions, social practices and environmental hazards on specific populations e. Taylor and Francis AS, Wellsmith, M , The applicability of crime prevention to problems of environmental harm: A consideration of illicit trade in endangered species.
Taylor and Francis AS, pp. Wellsmith M. Access to Document Link to publication in Scopus. To demonstrate the power, potential and possibility—as well as some potential limitations—of a green cultural criminology with images, the authors draw on two ethnographic studies carried out in Huelva Spain and central Appalachia United States.
Such methods, Natali and McClanahan contend, have the advantage of 1 bringing together the multiple and complex experiences of those who live in polluted areas; 2 considering the cultural meaning given to experiences of ecological change and destruction; and 3 exploring how those experiences are represented, communicated and understood.
Drawing on their research on environmental crime in the Armenian mining industry, the authors contend that understanding environmental crime helps reveal how autocratic leaders may ab use or otherwise exploit natural resources in order to cement their power—at least, initially.
chipguan-dev.zencode.guru/6497.php Studying environmental crime in such settings, Stefes and Theodoratos contend, may stimulate a reconceptualization of the meaning and etiology of environmental crime—one that begins at the law- making , rather than law- implementation stage. Sollund contends that rather than attempting to free oneself from subjective realizations, such realizations may be examined as additional sources of data of which empathic reactions to oppression and abuse form a part.
Using a case study of dissident Nordic hunters killing protected wolves in order to send a message to state agencies responsible for their conservation, the authors grapple with philosophical questions regarding the nature and scope of wildlife victimhood, as well as the justifiability of interspecies violence as a mode of political dissent. In so doing, von Essen and Allen argue not for a moral theory of justice for wolves along the ecophilosophical lines of Sollund , but for a green criminology attuned to communication ethics and democratic theory.
See a Problem?
At that level, all wolves are potentially the victims of any kind of hunting practice. But we take no stand here… [S]ome green harms—such as the illegal killing of protected wolves—come about as the result of legitimacy failures of the laws that protect them. The proper response to such harms is… to take seriously the sincere belief of the hunters that the political system for justifying the legitimacy of environment law has failed in their eyes…. As such, Runhovde argues that the language of war, militarization and securitization should be used with caution as it risks constructing an image of wildlife crime that is misleading—and one that prevents responses that are effective in the long term.
Labeling, stigmatization and the risk of confiscation by the police has not only prevented the dogs from interacting with other members of their species, but has resulted in the labeling and stigmatization of their human companions. Lie analyzes the breed ban from a critical, anti-speciesist perspective, arguing that it is consistent with other discriminatory practices in modern western societies. Consistent with the rest of the special issue, his goal is to heighten awareness of issues and contradictions that may contribute to environmental despoliation and degradation or frustrate efforts to address such harm.
Overall, the special issue offers just a small sample of the type of research being conducted on environmental crime and harm by green criminologists. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Article First Online: 11 April Aas, K. Google Scholar.
Becker, H. Whose side are we on?
Social Problems, 14 3 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Beirne, P. Issues in green criminology: Confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals. Cullompton: Willan. Ellefsen, R. Eco-global crimes: Contemporary problems and future challenges.